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Analog Input or Output :

The Arduino will input and output analog signals further as digital signals. Associate in Nursing analog signal is one that may combat any variety of values, not like a digital signal that has solely 2 values: HIGH and LOW. to live the worth of analog signals, the Arduino incorporates an inbuilt digitizer (ADC).

The Arduino doesn’t have an inbuilt data converter (DAC), however, it will pulse-width modulate (PWM) a digital signal to realize a number of the functions of Associate in Nursing analog output.

The perform want to output a PWM signal is analogWrite(pin, value). a pin is that the personal identification number used for the PWM output. price may be a variety proportional to the duty cycle of the signal. once price = zero, the signal is usually off.

once price = 255, the signal is usually on. On most Arduino boards, the PWM perform is accessible on pins three, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. The frequency of the PWM signal on most pins is just about 490 cycle per second. On the Uno and similar boards, pins five and six have a frequency of roughly 980 cycles per second. Pins three and eleven on the old master conjointly run at 980 cycles per second.

Required Parts :


  • Arduino Board            [Purchase Links]             Ali-Express        Amazon
  • Project Board                                                       Ali-Express        Amazon
  • USB Connector                                                   Ali-Express        Amazon
  • Connecting Cable                                               Ali-Express        Amazon    
  • Variable resistor                                                  Ali-Express        Amazon
  • Resistor                                                               Ali-Express        Amazon
  • LED Light                                                            Ali-Express        Amazon

Connection Diagram :


In this experiment, we are going to management the brightness of the crystal rectifier employing a potentiometer. we are going to the analogRead() operate to browse a voltage and also the analogWrite() operate to output a PWM signal, whose duty cycle is proportional to the analog voltage. Connect the circuit as shown below. once you rotate the potentiometer, the voltage on pin A0 can modification. The program can then modify the duty cycle of the PWM signal on pin two, dynamic the brightness of the crystal rectifier.