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Basic Microphone  Microphone types

What is the Microphone :

Microphones are employed in several applications like telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, movie production, life and recorded audio engineering, audio recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and tv broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic functions like unhearable sensors or knock sensors.

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History :


The first mike that enabled correct voice telecom was the (loose-contact) carbon mike. This was severally developed by David Edward Hughes in European country and character German and inventor within the United States of America. though Thomas Alva Edison was awarded the primary patent (after an extended legal dispute) in mid-1877, Hughes had incontestible his operating device ahead of the many witnesses some years earlier, and most historians credit him with its invention.[5][6][7][8] The carbon mike is that the direct example of today’s microphones and was crucial within the development of telecom, broadcasting and therefore the recording industries.[9] inventor refined the carbon mike into his carbon-button transmitter of 1886.[7][10] This mike was utilized at the primary ever broadcast, a performance at the big apple Metropolitan theater in 1910.

Also in 1923, the ribbon mike was introduced, another magnetic force sort, believed to own been developed by Harry F. Olson, WHO primarily reverse-engineered a ribbon speaker.[17] Over the years these microphones were developed by many firms, most notably RCA that created giant advancements in pattern management, to administer the mike radial asymmetry. With tv and film technology booming there was demand for top fidelity microphones and larger radial asymmetry. Electro-Voice responded with their Academy triumph scattergun mike in 1963.


The sensitive electrical device part of a mike is termed its part or capsule. The sound is 1st regenerate to mechanical motion by suggests that of a diaphragm, the motion of that is then regenerate to associate degree electrical signal. a whole mike additionally includes a housing, some suggests that of transfer the signal from the part to alternative instrumentality, and sometimes associate degree electronic circuit to adapt the output of the capsule to the instrumentality being driven. A wireless mike contains a sender.

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The Different type of Microphone :

This article can assist you to perceive what the most types of microphones that are utilized in music production, each live and recording, and what every sort of mic is often used for.

  • Dynamic microphones :

Dynamic microphones use a similar dynamic principle as during a speaker, solely reversed. a little movable coil, positioned within the force field of a static magnet, is connected to the diaphragm. once sound enters through the screen of the electro-acoustic transducer, the acoustic wave moves the diaphragm. once the diaphragm vibrates, the coil moves within the force field, manufacturing a varied current within the coil through magnetic attraction induction. one dynamic membrane doesn’t respond linearly to any or all audio frequencies. For this reason, some microphones utilize multiple membranes for the various components of the audio spectrum then mix the ensuing signals.

Combining the multiple signals properly is difficult; styles that do that are rare and have a tendency to be valuable. On the opposite hand, there are many styles that are a lot of specifically aimed towards isolated components of the audio spectrum.

  • Condenser microphones :

The capacitor microphone, fictional at Western electrical in 1916 by E. C. Wente,[19] is additionally referred to as a mike or static microphone—capacitors were traditionally referred to as condensers. Here, the diaphragm acts together with the plate of a capacitance, and therefore the vibrations turn out changes within the distance between the plates.


Within the time frame of the capacitance amendment (as very much like fifty ms at twenty cps audio signal), the charge is much constant and therefore the voltage across the capacitance amendments instantly to mirror the change in capacitance. The voltage across the capacitance varies higher than and below the bias voltage. The voltage distinction between the bias and therefore the capacitance is seen across the series electrical device. The voltage across the electrical device is amplified for performance or recording. In most cases, the physics within the mike itself contribute no voltage gain because the voltage differential is kind of vital, up to many volts for top sound levels. Condenser microphones span the vary from phone transmitters through cheap vocalizing microphones to accurate recording microphones. they often turn out a high-quality audio signal and are currently the favored alternative in laboratory and studio applications. The inherent quality of this technology is thanks to the terribly little mass that has to be rapt by the incident acoustic wave, in contrast to alternative mike sorts that need the acoustic wave to try and do a lot of work.

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Ribbon microphone :

Ribbon microphones were among the primary microphones ever created. These painting mics started gaining quality within the ‘30s, notably within the radio trade. the opposite 2 styles of microphones could have purloined the spotlight in modern times, however, agent and additional modern-looking versions of ribbon microphones have paved the method for its comeback, particularly with its sturdier construction and higher frequency response.

Despite the simple benefits of dynamic and condenser mics, the ribbon mic remains regarded by several because of the most natural-sounding electro-acoustic transducer and also the best (albeit additional expensive) alternative for home recording.

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